Period 7 Abstracts


ABSTRACT FORMAT. Dr. Gepner. Type your abstract in this exact format, including a title in bold caps, your name in upper and lower case bold, and a paragraph summarizing the key points of your report. Do not use the first person. The paragraph should be at least ¼ of a page in length and no longer than ½ page. It must be typewritten single-spaced. When your abstract is completed and in the correct format, copy and paste it in the space below, leaving one return between your abstract and the one before.

ABSTRACTS:
CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS. Maddie Klein. Chemotherapy drugs are used to kill cancer cells in the body. Cancer cells are unlike normal cells because they replicate uncontrollably. Chemotherapy drugs detect cancerous cells and destroy them in different ways depending on the type of drug. The most common types of chemotherapy drugs are alkylating agents, antimetabolites, plant alkaloids, and antitumor antibiotics. Two widely used chemotherapy drugs are Taxol, a plant alkaloid, and cyclophosphamide, an alkylating agent. New research in chemotherapy drugs is in creating drugs that will reduce the side effects that result from the chemotherapy drugs.

Keywords: Chemotherapy drugs; Cancer; Alkylating agents; Antimetabolites, Plant alkaloids, Antitumor antibiotics; Taxol; Cyclophosphamide; Side effects.



RADIOACTIVITY. Savannah Morris. Radioactivity is when the nucleus of an atom is unstable due to an abnormal ratio of protons and neutrons and the nucleus then emits radiation. The three types of radiation are alpha, beta and gamma. Alpha particles are positively charged, beta particles are negatively charged. All radiation emits either alpha or beta particles, along with gamma rays. Radioactivity can be used in many fields, particularly medically. Though there are some useful uses, radiation is very dangerous; it can kill or alter living cells, which can result in sickness or even death.
Key Words: Radioactivity, Radiation, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Unstable nucleus


CARBON. Carrie Wight. Carbon is a very reactive nonmetal. It can form a large number of compounds. Most of the world’s carbon is in compounds with other elements. Carbon forms the strongest substance on earth, the diamond. It also forms graphite which slides apart very easily because of its structure. There are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon, C-12 and C-13 which are stable, and C-14 which is radioactive. C-14 is radioactive but not dangerous. C-14 has a half-life of 5730 years and is used to determine the age of once living matter. The rate of decay for carbon dating has been questioned, as well as the quality of the data. Though the methods have been questioned, carbon dating has proven to be a very useful tool. Carbon is a very important element, present in all known life forms and it the fourth most abundant element in the universe.
Keywords: Carbon, Structure, C-14, Half-life, Rate of decay, Carbon dating


GRIM BEGINNINGS, MODERN USES: THE HISTORY AND CHEMISTRY OF THALIDOMIDE. Frankie Welke. The antibiotic thalidomide was created and first used in Germany in the 1950s to treat morning sickness in pregnant women. It produced severe, and in some cases fatal, physical deformities in the fetus. Today, it is an important element in the treatment regimen for the blood cancer multiple myeloma and skin lesions caused by leprosy, Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL). This presentation traces the drug’s history, chemical structure, mechanism of action, side effects, current FDA approved uses, and ongoing research. This presentation highlights that, despite its horrible side effects in some contexts, thalidomide offers life-saving properties in others.

Keywords: Thalidomide; phocomelia; immunomodulatory agent; Multiple Myeloma; Erythema Nodosum Leprosum; angiogenesis; West German Company Chemie Grünenthal; Dr. Frances Oldham Kelsey; toxicity; teratogen


WINE MAKING PROCESS. Sam Shapiro. Wine making uses several chemical processes to be completed. The most important process is fermentation (C6H12O6 --> 2CO2+ 2C2H5OH). Fermentation is the chemical reaction of yeast and glucose. Fermentation releases heat and alcohol, a major factor in wine. Drinking red wine has many healthy benefits. Resveratrol is a compound commonly found in red wine that has been tested in labs, showing that it can help with anti-aging and gives many other health benefits (e.g. lowers risk of heart failure and anti-cancers). The chemical steps of wine making affect the entire out put of the wine from taste to color and health benefits.
Keywords: fermentation, yeast, grapes, resveratrol, alcohol, red and white wine.

POLLUTION AND CORAL BLEACHING OF GREAT BARRIER REEF. Sarah Whitaker. The Great Barrier Reef, consisting of 2,900 reefs and stretching 2,300 kms along the Queensland, Australia coastline, is under a constant threat due to coral bleaching and pollution. Coral bleaching is the chemical process of the coral host expelling the zooaxanthellae. Corals are highly dependent on zooaxathellae because this photosynthetic pigment allows coral to obtain energy, and maintain its color. This process decreases coral growth, reproduction, increases to susceptibility to disease and many times leads to the death of a reef. Pollution is the chemical process of humans disturbing the natural environment. Farmers of Australia have been allowing their pesticides to run off into the rivers which flow into the Ocean, and into the Great Barrier Reef. This pollution not only disturbs the natural environment by killing many of the species that rely on the reef for their homes, but also is raising the ph of the water, leading to a number of different factors, the main factor being coral bleaching. These chemical processes are harming the reef's ecosystem, causing the reef to decrease in size, and in the ability to provide the same habitat as a host to thousands of species, many of them endangered.

Keywords: Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, coral bleaching, zooaxanthellae, pollution, pesticides, ecosystem,

NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS AND THEIR AFFECT ON THE HUMAN BODY. Lucy Meyer. NSAIDs are used mostly as short term, mild pain relievers, but when they are used for extensive periods of time, they can cause damage to the body’s gastrointestinal system. The role of an NSAID as a cyclooxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins, inhibitor is the reason that these drugs are anti-inflammatory. Due to the dangers of NSAIDs, much research has been conducted on the cyclooxygenase enzyme and recent discovery has shown that there are 2 isoenzymes of cyclooxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2. This discovery has shown the many differences in the COX-1 inhibitors versus COX-2 inhibitors and the different effects each one has on the body. The differences between individual NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and aspirin, directly relate to the differences in adverse, and beneficial, reactions in the body. Key Words: NSAIDs, Cyclooxygenase 1 & 2, Isoenzymes, Prostaglandins, Inhibitors.


FOOD ADDITIVES. Caroline Daniels. Flavors comprise one of the most pervasive classes of flood additives. Those approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are aromatic substances that can be either natural or synthetic. One significant flavoring agent is vanillin. Natural vanillin comes most commonly from the vanillin plant (Vanilla plansfolia) but synthetic substitutions can be created easily through many different processes. As an extremely stable aldehyde, it can also be chemically reduced to produce a variety of substances. One of these substances is the flavoring agent, capsaicin. Capsaicin is the main flavoring agent in red peppers, but can also be used as a pain reliever. Another food additive group is that of flavor enhansors. Monosodium Glutimate is a flavor enhansor because it intensifies a foods flavors. Though Monosodium Glutimate is used frequently, it is believed react negatively with a number of the body's organs.
Key Works: vanillin, capsaicin, zingersone, guaiacol, aldehyde, alkali, aromatic, hydrolyzed, toxicity, flavoring and improving agents

CAFFEINE. Ben Greenwald Caffeine or1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is a chemical stimulant found in many plant species. Caffeine is the most widely used drug with around 90% of the world’s population using it because of its ability of stimulating the body. As a stimulant of the Central Nervous System, caffeine reacts with the brain causing multiple different effects. Caffeine increases the output of hormones affects the Central Nervous System in a way that affects the alertness of the body, ward of fatigue and has a positive affect on both physical and mental performance. Caffeine causes increased neuron firing in the brain which cause the body to go into actions that allow for higher level of competition in sports ranging form baseball to cycling by increasing everything form reaction time to holding off fatigue.
Keywords: Caffeine, epinephrine, Central Nervous System, endurance performance, VO2,

THE CHEMISTRY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Nick Linsmayer. Photography is a field that depends greatly on the understanding and employment of chemistry and chemical processes. From the capturing of an image on film, to the processing of that film, and in the print making process, chemistry is essential to photography. The early days of photography attest to the importance of understanding the chemical processes involved in creating photosensitive reactions. In 1824 Joseph-Nicephore Niepce patented his methods of “sun engraving” or “heliogravure.” It took other talented chemists such as Louis Daguerre to provide more effective methods of making pictures. These chemists discovered the unique properties of silver halide (e.g. AgBr, AgCl, AgI), which is essential to capturing an image. The oxidized silver ions play a role in each phase of photography as the silver emulsion layer on the film and photographic paper binds particles to a “sensitivity speck”, forming a whole silver crystal. This process occurs only where light is exposed and thus creating contrast that defines and image. Knowledge of chemical process like this make the photography possible.
Key Words: photosensitivity, silver halide, sensitivity speck, silver crystal

NICOTINE IN CIGARETTES. Sam Rock. Today’s cigarettes and chewing tobacco are full of nicotine, a chemical that is addictive as well as toxic. The purpose of this research is to learn more about the natural growth of nicotine in tobacco plants as well as the ways nicotine affects the body through both smoking and chewing tobacco. Results give some of the effects that nicotine has on the body as well as some of the reasons why it is such a bad ingredient in cigarettes.
Keywords: nicotine, alkaloids, tobacco, toxic

OPIATES. Joey Goldfarb. The purpose of this research was to dig deep into the chemistry of opiates and learn more about them. Opiates describe any derivatives of the alkaloids, chemical bonds containing nitrogen atoms, found in opium. The study of opiates included the biochemistry of opiates, chemistry, functions, and uses of opiates. There is a wide variety of opiates with some having higher concentrations of opium than others. Heroin, for example, has a higher concentration of opium with about 90% opium while morphine can relieve mild to severe pain without having highly addictive characteristics because it possesses about 10% concentration of opium. Opiates slow down the central nervous system and block messages from the brain such as a pain, breathing, or coughing. Opiates are addictive when used excessively but can be good for people if used correctly under supervision.
Key Words: Opiates, addiction, Heroin, Opium, nervous system

STERIODS. Billy Lutz. Steroids are a family of lipid molecules that includes cholesterol, steroid hormones, and bile salts. Steroid hormones, like all hormones, are chemical messengers. The basic steroid skeleton structure is made up of three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. Anabolic steroids, a division of steroids, are a group of powerful compounds closely related to the male sex hormone testosterone. Current legitimate medical uses include treatment of certain kinds of anemia. Anabolic steroids increase the body’s ability to create lean muscle mass, strength, and endurance. These increases come with a cost as both, legally and illegitimately taken steroids produce negative consequences in the human body. Many of the short-term effects are reversible but abusers often use steroids extensively as well as taken amplified dosages. This project encapsulates the chemical structure, as well as the causes and effects of steroid use on the human body.
Keywords: Steroid, Anabolic, Hormone, Lipid

FIREWORKS. John Tocho. Fireworks have been attributed to the Chinese in the 12th century. From their creation until now, fireworks have always been made the same way. Fireworks, also known as stars, have five main compounds; an oxidizing agent, a reducing agent, a coloring agent, binders and regulators. The oxidizers produce oxygen to burn the mixture, the reducing agents burn the oxygen from the oxidizers to create hot gasses, and the regulators control the reaction’s time and outcome. The coloring agents just give color, where as the binders hold the other four pieces together, allowing for a reaction to happen. The main ways of color production are incandescent and luminescent. Incandescent light, which is produced from heat, are often formed from mixing metals where has Luminescent light, “cold light”, is produced from energy sources other than heat. Fireworks have become much more sophisticated in recent history, allowing developers to design specific explosions.
Keywords: Fireworks; oxidizers, nitrates, chlorates, perchlorates, reducing agents, binders, incandescent light, luminescent light, cold light.

TOOTHPASTE. Julia Sethna. Toothpaste was first invented by Dr. Washington Wentworth Sheffield in 1850. Since than, most types of toothpaste have contained the same basic composition: a binding agent to thicken the pastes, an abrasive agent to clean the teeth, a humectants agent for texture and moisture, a flavoring and sweetening agent for taste, preserves for conservation, a type of fluoride to fight cavities, and a sudser ingredient to turn the paste to foam. This sudser ingredient is commonly C12H25NaO4S (Sodium lauryl sulfate) and it is due to its presence in toothpaste that orange juice tastes bad after brushing one’s teeth. Due to the many components in toothpaste, toothpaste has improved everyday life for many. However, owing to the excess of fluoride within it, consuming too much toothpaste could be detrimental.
Keywords: Carrageenan, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium lauryl sulfate, Glycerin, Titanium dioxide, Saccharin, Sodium fluoride